Population, 2,907,000. Paris, the capital of the French Republic, is a very beautiful city, with broad boulevards and numerous buildings of unusual interest. In its great museums are many of the world's most precious works of art. This city is located on the Seine and is in the midst of a rich agricultural country. It is also on the highway of travel from the Mediterranean countries northward through the valley of the Saone-Rhone system and down the valley of the Seine. Paris is an important railroad center and is also a port for the smaller ocean-going vessels. Many different industries were established here because it was easy to bring in raw material and to distribute manufactured foods from this center.
Population, 780,220. Naples is the largest city in Italy. It is located near a fertile lowland where a very dense population is supported. The climate is warm in this lowland area, and most of the people lead an agricultural life. Nearly all the inhabitants of this region make their homes in the villages near the coast and go into the country each day to work on their farms.
Cairo, Egypt, the largest city in Africa, has a population of 795,000. It is located at the head of the great delta of the Nile. It is the chief city of Mohammedan teaching and is the location of the Mohammedan University which was founded in the year 988. At Cairo there is a great bridge across the Nile--a modern steel structure. Automobiles, carriages, trolley cars and bicycles are in common use in Cairo today, but many of the natives still ride on camels, just as their ancestors did years ago. Observe the well-loaded carts in this picture.
With an estimated population in 1925 of 2,999,239, Chicago is the second largest city in the United States, and although it is a thousand miles from the ocean, it is one of the greatest ports in our country. The low, flat land on which the city is built was once covered by the waters of Lake Michigan. Chicago has no natural harbor, but by widening and deepening the mouth of the Chicago river and by protecting it by breakwaters an excellent harbor has been made. The River itself, which used to flow into the lake, has been transformed into a drainage canal by which the waters of Lake Michigan flow into the Illinois River and finally into the Mississippi. Chicago is the largest meat market in the world and the greatest railroad center.
Population, 880,998. Constantinople is a city located on the highway of travel by land from Asia to Europe and on the water route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Large numbers of Turks live in this city and in the territory immediately surrounding it. In addition to the Turks, its inhabitants include, ordinarily, many Greeks, Armenians and other foreigners. The city is very old. If was founded by the Greeks 650 years before the birth of Christ. Later it was conquered by the Romans, and finally it fell into the possession of the Turks. For centuries it was the capital of the Turkish Empire, most of which was in Anatolia. In this way the Turks have controlled the land on both sides of the narrow straits which separate Europe from Asia. By means of forts located along the shores they have commanded the very important water route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. After the World War the Turks were allowed to remain in possession of Constantinople, but the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the Dardanelles were taken from their control, and are now open to the ships of all nations.
Though the disastrous earthquake of Sept., 1923, followed by tidal wave and fire practically destroyed Japan's great and beautiful capital, causing a property loss of $2,741,000,000, Tokio is being rapidly rebuilt into one of the finest of modern cities. In the new city residential districts are segregated from commercial and industrial districts. Six new avenues from 100 feet to 150 feet wide cut across the most crowded sections supplementing the old main thoroughfares, while more than one hundred new streets with a minimum width of 36 feet, replace the old narrow crooked lanes and streets. Fire-proof zones have been planned and the government is subsidizing the erection of the fire-proof buildings. Tokio proper has a population of 2,036,000 while Greater Tokio, following the plan of consolidating former suburbs, announced its population in August, 1925, as 3,859,674.
The population, 1,868,328, is nearly three hundred thousand less than at the beginning of the Great War. Vienna is the capital and chief city of Austria. It is beautifully located on the Danube river and is laid out with broad avenues that are planted with trees. Just below the city the Alps and the Little Carpathians come to the banks of the river and form a narrow pass known as the Austrian Gate. The museums in Vienna have wonderfully valuable art and natural-history collections, and this city has long been one of the leading musical centers of the world.
Budapest, the capital of Hungary lies on both banks of the Danube. A number of great bridges join the old city of Buda on the high western bank of the river to Pest, the newer part of the lowlands bordering the stream on the east. It is one of the most beautiful cities of Europe. It was one of the first of European capitals to adopt modern methods of transportation. It has an electric subway system and well paved streets. It is the shipping point for a rich agricultural region and is one of the chief flour mill centers of Europe. The present population of Budapest is 1,184,616.
Population, 1,422,000. Rio de Janeiro, the capital with over a million people, is the second largest in South America. Buenos Aires is the largest. Rio is located on the most beautiful harbor in the world, where the largest vessels may anchor safely. This is a place where the land sank and let the ocean waters come in. Over a hundred little islands in the harbor are hills or low mountains with only their tops out of water. The city of Rio de Janeiro is built on narrow plains between the hills. In the older part, which is the business district, the streets are narrow. In the newer part there are wide avenues bordered by rows of beautiful palms, feathery bamboos, and tree ferns. The homes in this part of the city are modern, and many of them are set in gardens of flowering tropical plants.
Tokyo, the capital of the Empire of Japan, is one of the foremost cities of the Orient. In spite of the terrible destruction wrought by the earthquake of September 1, 1923, Tokyo will soon be a greater city than before the earthquake. "Under the supervision of the Municipal Reconstruction Bureau in rebuilding Tokyo residential districts are segregated from commercial and industrial districts. Six new avenues, 100 to 150 feet wide, will cut across the most crowded sections, supplementing the existing main thoroughfares, and 122 new streets with a minimum width of 36 feet are laid out, replacing narrow and crooked lanes and streets; three large and 52 small parks will be added and a fifteen million yen (nearly $7,500,000) chain of public markets. Also, a subway will be built." Tokyo city proper under census of August, 1925, had a population of 2,036,136. Including subrubs--that is, Greater Tokyo--the people numbered 3,859,674.