Image Description from historic lecture booklet: "Many of the boulders and pebbles of the till are found to be glaciated, or marked with parallel scratches. Often they look as if engraved with a sharp need. Sometimes the scratches are deep and rough. A marked polish is seen on some stones. If we dig through the subsoil to the bed-rock, we shall often find the latter scratched in the same way, or even deeply grooved and carved into fluting's and the folding. The glacier, shod with stones at its base, drags these over the bed-rock, and thus both the moving fragments and the floor over which they move are polished and graven. The direction of the scratches corresponds to that in which the erratic boulders have been moved, and so, putting these other facts together, we have full proof that glaciers have done the work."
This picture shows the lower end of Manhattan Island. This is the business and financial center of New York city, and the office buildings are commonly known as skyscrapers because they are so high. The waterfront here is lined with long piers which jut out into the river. Between them are the deep-water docks which receive the largest ocean lines. The city of New York has the largest population of all the cities in the world except Greater London and outranks all others in export and import trade. Its excellent harbor affords a port for the largest vessels. Raw materials may be brought from all parts of the world. This location on the seashore, therefore, is one of the most desirable places in the United States for a city. In addition, New York has the advantage of being at the mouth of an important river. Northward from New York is the busy highway of travel through the valley of the Hudson, and equally important is the valley of the Mohawk, leading westward from Albany. By the Hudson-Mohawk, route supplies of raw material for manufacture, and great quantities of food, are brought from the rich agricultural lands of the interior. During the French and Indian War and the American Revolution the valley of the Hudson was a center of great struggle, for its possession by an enemy meant the separation of the only two thickly settled districts of American and the isolation of New England. In addition to its commerical advantages, New York is but a short distance from a large supply of fuel. From the Appalachian fields coal and oil are quickly and easily brought to the city for the use in the large factories. The leading industries in New York are the manufacture of clothing and machinery, printing and book-making, meat-packing, and the refining of sugar. New York has become the leading financial center of the world. There are many banks and insurance companies with large capital, and most the great industrial houses of American have offices in the city. The borough of Brooklyn developed as a large independent city across the river from New York City, but it has now become a part of the metropolis. It is an important center for the refining of sugar and the roasting and grinding of coffee and spices. Eastward from Brooklyn and northward along the banks of the Hudson River are chains of suburban towns where many of the people live who work each day in the metropolis. To the west, across the Hudson River, are Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. These three cities are in New Jersey, but they have many of the same geographic advantages that New York City has. In addition to the busy industrial and commercial life of the city, New York is one of the leading educational and musical centers of this country, and it is fortunate in having wonderful collections of natural history and art.
All but the south and north ends of Manhattan Island is shown. Astoria, the Bronx, and the inner-end of Long Island Sound, are visible in the distance. The coast lines have been made by subsidence of the land, and the drowning of stream valleys. Ships from Boston, and points north, usually enter New York harbor through the "sound".
Looking north, the docks, and Wall Street district are prominent. The fact that the earth's surface in the northeastern United States has lately subsided beneath sea-level accounts for New York City's splendid harbor. Deep stream valleys were, in this way, "drowned"--thus forming navigable bays.