Dr. Mitchell discusses several well-known cases of multiple personality, including the cases of: Ansel Bourne, Felida X, Mr. Hanna, Miss Beauchamp, Louis V, Mary Barnes, Madame B, and Milly P. The doctor then goes on to discuss how these secondary personalities can be formed and how it is possible for one personality to not be aware of the other personality. Dr. Mitchell takes on the view of these patients having co-conscious personalities, his reasoning is discussed in depth.
This article discusses Dr. Browne’s objections to Dr. Skae’s terminology for classifying mental diseases. Dr. Browne follows the school of thought in which one classifies symptoms and not diseases, while Dr. Skae says that symptoms are not diseases and should not be treated as such. The author refutes Dr. Browne’s criticisms of Dr. Skae one by one. The author studies each Dr.’s arguments for diagnosis for certain cases before coming to a conclusion on which method of classification is best.
This is a clinical case presentation of a young man, described as being very suggestible, hypochondriacal, and without motivation. The symptoms began after contracting typhoid fever in the Spanish American war, and after a head injury. The man traveled to London and South Africa in this alternate personality. He also became unaware of his surroundings and did not recognize his doctor, confusing him with a not very friendly acquaintance. The patient is described as being very amenable to hypnosis which had limited effects in controlling his alternate state.
McDougall reviews Sidis’ book “Multiple personality.” The book mainly concerns the case of Mr. Hanna. He suffered from a complete loss of memory following an accident. He began to have brief snips of his past life, mostly through dreams. He eventually regained his previous memories and was able to also remember his “new” memories. Sidis stated that the case was one of psycho-physiological dissociation. McDougall does not come to the same conclusion of Mr. Hanna’s case as Sidis does. McDougall questions to what extent the treatment brought about Mr. Hanna’s recovery. McDougall briefly covers the other contents of the book.
This case of amnesia combined with dramatic personality change is considered a result of an undetermined head injury. The physician describes an adult male, who upon hospitalization complained of pain in the left side of his head. The patient underwent brain surgery, and consequently changed handedness from left to right. The patient did not remember his personal history spanning the last fourteen years. While under hypnosis, the patient's last memories were ten years prior. After ten weeks of observation, patient had no other symptoms and was released. Yet after his release, the patient reported another episode of unconsciousness.
This report describes the treatment of a 28 year-old clerk admitted to an asylum after sending threatening telegrams to various people. A history of many similar now forgotten episodes emerges. The therapist soon meets an alter personality responsible for these episodes, which are linked to past (unspecified) aversive experiences with an uncle. Further exploration of these traumatic events leads to the patient's improvement and gradual disappearance of the alter. Historical Note: About a decade after this paper was published, the author, Bernard Hart, would become a strong advocate of Freudian psychoanalysis and a vocal critic of Pierre Janet. <full>236 A CASE OF DOUBLE PERSONALITY, [ April, A Case of Double Personality.( a) By BERNARD HART, M. B., Lecturer in Psychiatry, University College Hospital Medical School, Assistant Medical Officer, Long Grove Asylum. DOUBLE personality is a fascinating subject, and has always possessed a peculiar attraction both for the professional psycho. logist and the layman— owing, no doubt, to the strange and often dramatic character of its manifestations. It is hoped, therefore, that a few notes upon an actual case may be of interest. These notes relate to a case belonging to the group of the psychoneuroses, a case of considerable complexity, and one which was subjected to a prolonged psychological investigation. The episodes connected with the double personality form, indeed, only a single chapter in a long history. I shall only attempt to relate as much of the other portions of this history as is necessary for the understanding of the chapter in question. This chapter is of exceptional interest in that I was able to witness both the birth and— I believe— the final disappearance of the secondary personality. The patient, whom we will call John Smith, a clerk in a business house, 28, was admitted to the asylum with a certificate stating little beyond the fact that he had sent threatening telegrams to various people, and had occasionally been observed to behave in a somewhat irresponsible manner. He was clear, collected, and to a cursory examination presented little that was abnormal. He stated that he had been assured by his wife that he had sent the telegrams, and that it might perhaps be true, but that he himself had no recollection whatever of doing so. A careful examination showed, however, that the sending of the telegrams formed only a single episode in a whole section of his past life, ranging over several weeks, the contents of which were entirely forgotten. Moreover, it was found that chequered throughout the preceding few years there were other similar totally forgotten periods. He would remember, for example, starting for the office one morning— then would come a blank— and, perhaps a week later, he would
Dr. Skae discusses a case involving an individual in the legal profession who suffers from a case of double consciousness. The patient alternates days of great health and vigor with days of a state between hypochondria and mental alienation. On the poor health days the patient surrounds himself with Scriptures and Psalms. The patient has also suggested suicide when in this state. On his days of good health the patient has no recollection of these bad days, but can remember his previous good day.
Dr. Bramwell conducted multiple experiments on multiple patients using hypnotism. In each of these experiments the Dr. hypnotized the patient and then suggested that they perform a certain task in a certain number of minutes. In most cases the patient was able to perform the task (or a close proximity) at the preappointed time (or a close proximity). The patient would have no recollection of why they felt the need to perform this task unless they were asked while hypnotized. The Dr. concludes that this was an unconscious measurement of time. Several other doctors either refute or agree with Dr. Bramwell’s conclusions.
Dr. Browne writes of the idea of personal identity. First he discusses what his ideas of personal identity are then reviews several cases. These cases take place in the awake state as well as in the dreaming state. He also reviews the idea of a state of double consciousness. Both of these states he reasons are errors of identity and need to be studied further to gain more knowledge about them.