“Multiple personality and dissociation, 1791-1992(2nd edition)” is a bibliography. It contains the 1st edition as well as updates through November 30, 1993. Article errors have been corrected when possible. The bibliography is divided up into the following areas: Multiple personalities, Dissociation and Amnesia, Depersonalization and Derealization, Fugue States, and Medico-legal Aspects.
This article describes the case of Mary Barnes, who was 12 years old in 1894. After an illness Mary began to develop multiple personalities over a number of years. 10 distinct personalities were noted. Their appearance lasted anywhere from a number of weeks without interruption to a mere matter of minutes, never to return. Each of the personalities was distinct and would be accompanied with facial features, body abilities and knowledge. One personality was a deaf mute, one was blind, and one was paralyzed, several personalities had low intelligence levels. Dr. Wilson describes each of the personalities in detail, along with their arrival and departure dates. The author gives a brief overview of the Nervous System. Letters written by Mary’s different personalities are also included.
This report describes the treatment of a 28 year-old clerk admitted to an asylum after sending threatening telegrams to various people. A history of many similar now forgotten episodes emerges. The therapist soon meets an alter personality responsible for these episodes, which are linked to past (unspecified) aversive experiences with an uncle. Further exploration of these traumatic events leads to the patient's improvement and gradual disappearance of the alter. Historical Note: About a decade after this paper was published, the author, Bernard Hart, would become a strong advocate of Freudian psychoanalysis and a vocal critic of Pierre Janet. <full>236 A CASE OF DOUBLE PERSONALITY, [ April, A Case of Double Personality.( a) By BERNARD HART, M. B., Lecturer in Psychiatry, University College Hospital Medical School, Assistant Medical Officer, Long Grove Asylum. DOUBLE personality is a fascinating subject, and has always possessed a peculiar attraction both for the professional psycho. logist and the layman— owing, no doubt, to the strange and often dramatic character of its manifestations. It is hoped, therefore, that a few notes upon an actual case may be of interest. These notes relate to a case belonging to the group of the psychoneuroses, a case of considerable complexity, and one which was subjected to a prolonged psychological investigation. The episodes connected with the double personality form, indeed, only a single chapter in a long history. I shall only attempt to relate as much of the other portions of this history as is necessary for the understanding of the chapter in question. This chapter is of exceptional interest in that I was able to witness both the birth and— I believe— the final disappearance of the secondary personality. The patient, whom we will call John Smith, a clerk in a business house, 28, was admitted to the asylum with a certificate stating little beyond the fact that he had sent threatening telegrams to various people, and had occasionally been observed to behave in a somewhat irresponsible manner. He was clear, collected, and to a cursory examination presented little that was abnormal. He stated that he had been assured by his wife that he had sent the telegrams, and that it might perhaps be true, but that he himself had no recollection whatever of doing so. A careful examination showed, however, that the sending of the telegrams formed only a single episode in a whole section of his past life, ranging over several weeks, the contents of which were entirely forgotten. Moreover, it was found that chequered throughout the preceding few years there were other similar totally forgotten periods. He would remember, for example, starting for the office one morning— then would come a blank— and, perhaps a week later, he would
Dr. Prince discusses the case of Miss Beauchamp, one of his patients who suffered from multiple personalities. Miss Beauchamp’s 2nd personality was named Sally. Sally would do whatever she could to annoy Miss Beauchamp, even going so far as to get her lost in the country. Sally would even correspondence with Miss Beauchamp. In 1899 a third personality came out after a disturbing incident. At first this personality was thought to be the true Miss Beauchamp, but that idea was soon discarded. Dr. Prince discusses the causes and memories of each of the personalities, he charts the existence of each personality.
The author discusses several "crises" in the life of Doris Fischer that were thought to contribute to the development of two to five secondary personalities such as her father's abuse of alcohol and the death of her mother, her "friend and protector." Physical attributes, personality traits, and characteristic behaviors of each of these personalities are described. The author attributes the importance of this particular case both to a doctor's near hourly observations of her for three years and the success of her treatment. The treatment process and its effects on the various personalities are described.
The Doris Fischer case concerns a woman with multiple personalities dating back to the age of three. Some of the personalities were created from traumatic events, others the origins of are unknown. This case is remarkable because it involves a personality that is a subliminal co-conscious personality that can co-exist at the same time as another personality and can take over when necessary. Doris was under observation daily and hourly for almost four years. In all Doris is said to have five separate personalities. Each personality and the actions of each is discussed in detail by Dr. Prince.
This article describes a case in 1887 of "double consciousness" experienced by Ansel Bourne, a 61-year-old preacher from Rhode Island. The author argues that Ansel suffered from a post-epileptic partial loss of memory, resulting in the formation of a secondary identity named A.J. Brown. Several first hand accounts of the man's condition are included, providing rich descriptions of his behavior and cognitive dysfunctions. References are made to childhood depression and possible abuse. The author cites several cases that reported epileptic seizures as the cause of double consciousness. He suggests hypnosis and "suggestive therapeutics" may cure double consciousness.
Two cases are covered by Dr. Myers. The first case is of Louis V. He suffered from epilepsy, hysteria and paralysis after a great fright from a viper. His memory would occasionally relapse back to a previous time period. Later in life he would oscillate back and forth between two personalities. Each personality seemed to be controlled by a different side of the brain. The second case is that of Felidia X. She suffered from the presence of a second personality. She was able to function in both of these states due to being put into a hypnotic trance. Dr. Myers compares the two cases on the grounds of morals vs. biology.
Dr. Albert Wilson documents his experiences as the primary physician of an adolescent girl who, over the course of four years, displayed more than a dozen distinct identities. Each persona was unique in its memories, mental capabilities, physical disturbances, aesthetic abilities and moral development. The first secondary personality appeared while the girl suffered from an "attack of meningitis." The physician hypothesizes that vaso-motor changes in the brain may play a central role in the etiology of this case of double consciousness. Finally, while considering the violent and socially deviant nature of some of the patient's personalities, Wilson examines moral and legal responsibility as it relates to the acts committed by individuals with dissociated identities.