“Multiple personality and dissociation, 1791-1992(2nd edition)” is a bibliography. It contains the 1st edition as well as updates through November 30, 1993. Article errors have been corrected when possible. The bibliography is divided up into the following areas: Multiple personalities, Dissociation and Amnesia, Depersonalization and Derealization, Fugue States, and Medico-legal Aspects.
The authors first define dissociation, describe it as a functionally adaptive process, and suggest that it may be an instinctive defense. The authors suggest that the absence of appropriate dissociation in the face of emotionally overwhelming events may lead to psychosis or other serious mental disturbances. The authors then describe three cases of psychogenic amnesia in previously healthy soldiers with no family or personal history of dysfunction. The first case of amnesia was observed in a soldier who witnessed a member of his company decapitated by a shell, the second in a soldier who saw his fiancee mortally wounded by a bomb, and the third in a sergeant who gave an order that led to the deaths of 122 men.
A man develops amnesia after he is accused of a crime. He forgets the last several years of his life once he is accused of the crime. Dr. Mayer analyzes the patient to decide if his amnesia is a conscious choice or an unconscious one. No definitive conclusion is reached.
Dr. Burnett discusses the case of a young man. The child was determined to be in the ministry at age five. Soon after this decision, the child started to suffer from various types of intense head pain, that lead to periods of a changed personality. As he grew, this also manifested itself with bouts of depression. A few episodes of violence also followed when the boy was under treatment at a sanatorium. After a session of intense mental suggestion, the patient no longer suffered from a dual personality or amnesia. He was then able to recall all actions of both sides of his personality. The article is followed by a discussion among several doctors about the case and similar ones they have encountered.
This case of amnesia combined with dramatic personality change is considered a result of an undetermined head injury. The physician describes an adult male, who upon hospitalization complained of pain in the left side of his head. The patient underwent brain surgery, and consequently changed handedness from left to right. The patient did not remember his personal history spanning the last fourteen years. While under hypnosis, the patient's last memories were ten years prior. After ten weeks of observation, patient had no other symptoms and was released. Yet after his release, the patient reported another episode of unconsciousness.
Dr. Skae discusses a case involving an individual in the legal profession who suffers from a case of double consciousness. The patient alternates days of great health and vigor with days of a state between hypochondria and mental alienation. On the poor health days the patient surrounds himself with Scriptures and Psalms. The patient has also suggested suicide when in this state. On his days of good health the patient has no recollection of these bad days, but can remember his previous good day.
The case of Felida X is studied by Dr. Azam. Felida suffers from periodical amnesia. In her primary state she was unaware of any actions that took place in her 2nd state, but she was aware of the presence of the 2nd state, but the amnesia is only present in the 1st state. In the 2nd state she remembers all of her actions while in the 1st state. While in this 2nd state Felida also presents changes in her character and affections. As Felida grew older the appearance of her second state increased in duration and her primary state became less and less frequent. Dr. Azam sees the amnesia suffered in the 1st state as the most important aspect of this case.
This is a clinical case presentation of a young man, described as being very suggestible, hypochondriacal, and without motivation. The symptoms began after contracting typhoid fever in the Spanish American war, and after a head injury. The man traveled to London and South Africa in this alternate personality. He also became unaware of his surroundings and did not recognize his doctor, confusing him with a not very friendly acquaintance. The patient is described as being very amenable to hypnosis which had limited effects in controlling his alternate state.
Two cases are covered by Dr. Myers. The first case is of Louis V. He suffered from epilepsy, hysteria and paralysis after a great fright from a viper. His memory would occasionally relapse back to a previous time period. Later in life he would oscillate back and forth between two personalities. Each personality seemed to be controlled by a different side of the brain. The second case is that of Felidia X. She suffered from the presence of a second personality. She was able to function in both of these states due to being put into a hypnotic trance. Dr. Myers compares the two cases on the grounds of morals vs. biology.
Dr. Myers discusses the case of Louis V. His case is compared to that of Felida X. Louis V. ‘s 2nd personality emerged after a scare with a viper. He developed other personalities due to various causes after that point. In all he is said to have six separate personalities. Some of these personalities also suffer from paralysis or epilepsy, some are gentle, other resort to thievery and mischief. Dr. Myers includes a chart to show the differences between the personalities.