“Multiple personality and dissociation, 1791-1992(2nd edition)” is a bibliography. It contains the 1st edition as well as updates through November 30, 1993. Article errors have been corrected when possible. The bibliography is divided up into the following areas: Multiple personalities, Dissociation and Amnesia, Depersonalization and Derealization, Fugue States, and Medico-legal Aspects.
The author defines repression as an active process of making some part of the mental content inaccessible to memory. He believes it to be harmful when it has negative effects on one's adaptation to his environment. He states that although it is a common practice to tell patients to not think of unpleasant memories it is rarely beneficial to voluntarily banish these thoughts. He discusses cases of war neurosis, and the part taken by repression in each of them. He concludes that facing painful memories and thoughts should be encouraged and patients should be helped after "cessation of repression" for improvement in treatment.
This case report concerns a 31 year old man who suffered from a fear of enclosed places. During treatment for this claustrophobia the man recovered a memory from age 4 involving being trapped in a dark enclosed space. Subsequent information provided by the man's parents provided some degree of confirmation of his recovered memory. The man's claustrophobia subsided after recovering the childhood memory. An interesting aspect of the case is that prior attempts to recover a memory of a sexual nature (due to therapist suggestion) were not successful, suggesting the man was not unduly suggestible.
A man develops amnesia after he is accused of a crime. He forgets the last several years of his life once he is accused of the crime. Dr. Mayer analyzes the patient to decide if his amnesia is a conscious choice or an unconscious one. No definitive conclusion is reached.
The authors first define dissociation, describe it as a functionally adaptive process, and suggest that it may be an instinctive defense. The authors suggest that the absence of appropriate dissociation in the face of emotionally overwhelming events may lead to psychosis or other serious mental disturbances. The authors then describe three cases of psychogenic amnesia in previously healthy soldiers with no family or personal history of dysfunction. The first case of amnesia was observed in a soldier who witnessed a member of his company decapitated by a shell, the second in a soldier who saw his fiancee mortally wounded by a bomb, and the third in a sergeant who gave an order that led to the deaths of 122 men.
The author discusses several "crises" in the life of Doris Fischer that were thought to contribute to the development of two to five secondary personalities such as her father's abuse of alcohol and the death of her mother, her "friend and protector." Physical attributes, personality traits, and characteristic behaviors of each of these personalities are described. The author attributes the importance of this particular case both to a doctor's near hourly observations of her for three years and the success of her treatment. The treatment process and its effects on the various personalities are described.
Several soldiers in Paris, France in 1918 were reported to be suffering from amnesia to escape punishment for deserting their units. All of the cases reported are of Native American soldiers. Three cases are discussed here they are all thought to have feigned amnesia. This conclusion was reached due to details being recalled that should not have been recalled. One case of amnesia that has been accepted as legitimate is also discussed.
The Doris Fischer case concerns a woman with multiple personalities dating back to the age of three. Some of the personalities were created from traumatic events, others the origins of are unknown. This case is remarkable because it involves a personality that is a subliminal co-conscious personality that can co-exist at the same time as another personality and can take over when necessary. Doris was under observation daily and hourly for almost four years. In all Doris is said to have five separate personalities. Each personality and the actions of each is discussed in detail by Dr. Prince.
Mrs. X married at a young age, she soon became unhappy with her husband. She begins to imagine her neighbor is in love with her. When her husband dies she appears to have a psychotic event, and is sent to a mental hospital. Here she is thought to suffer hallucinations of a sexual nature. Her rambling thoughts are interpreted as having either sexual or social motives. The patient has previously had a sexual relationship with her brother. She also variously saw her father, her pastor and the President as her lovers, none of which were likely true. Mrs. X was discharged after four months and focused her efforts on religion and raising her children. A male patient is also briefly discussed here, he is also said to suffer from a lack of an adequate outlet of the expression of sex motives.