During winter term 2016, two OSU student activists Mai Xee Yang and Nicthé Verdugo worked with Charlene Martinez, Associate Director of Integrated Learning for Social Change within Diversity & Cultural Engagement, on a project entitled Voices Without Borders for their Arts and Social Justice Practicum course. For more information, see the OMA blog: http://wpmu.library.oregonstate.edu/oregon-multicultural-archives/2016/03/19/voiceswithoutborders/, Interview Summary: Part 1 of the interview begins with project participant introductions and with Verdugo explaining the interview purpose and structure. The purpose is to bring together the Hmong and Latino/Chicano communities to speak about the stories behind their families coming to the United States. The interview structure is for each person to have four minutes to share their story, followed by an opportunity for artistic expression, and closing with a reconvening to reflect on the stories shared and artwork created. The participants Alejandra Mendoza, Lorena Ambriz, Guadalupe Garcia, Warren Wang, Gina Chang, and Nitché Verdugo then share their parents’ immigration stories, their connections to their race/ethnicity, and reflections upon their own identities. In Part 2 Mai Xee Yang and Natalia Fernández share their family immigration stories and how they have shaped their lives. Audio file available via MediaSpace: https://media.oregonstate.edu/media/t/0_8rt11i4v, Project Participant Bios: Alejandra Mendoza was born in Fresno, CA and raised in Boardman, OR, and is majoring in Mathematics; Lorena Ambriz was born in Mexico, raised in Eastern Oregon, and is majoring in Sociology; Guadalupe “Lupe” Garcia is from Salem, OR, and is majoring in Human Development and Family Sciences; Warren Wang is from Portland, OR, and is majoring in Biochemistry/Biophysics; Gina Chang is from Portland, OR, and is majoring in Psychology; Nitché Verdugo is from Southern California and Mexico and is majoring in Ethnic Studies with a focus on Chicanx/Latinx Studies; Mai Xee Yang is from Portland, OR, and is earning a Bachelors in Fine Arts. Natalia Fernández is from Tucson, AZ, and is an archivist. Mendoza, Ambriz, Garcia, Verdugo, and Yang are members of M.E.Ch.A. (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicanx de Aztlán). Wang and Chang are members of the OSU Hmong Club.
The Fred Milton family interview begins with Loretta Milton, Fred Milton’s widow, sharing her experiences while attending Oregon State University during the 1969 Black Student Union (BSU) Walkout, her relationship with Fred Milton, including their struggles as an interracial marriage, and their lives in Utah, Montreal, Canada, and eventually Portland, Oregon. Loretta describes Fred’s dissatisfaction with the Canadian football team and his subsequent jobs in Portland as a community liaison for the police, his employment at IBM, and his work for the city government. Zalika Gardner, Loretta and Fred’s first child, then shares some recollections of her father including: his wisdom, sensitivity, and sense of humor; his love to share stories; his talent as an athlete; his very humble personality; and his values. Gardner then describes her grandfather, a sharecropper who worked in Arkansas and then moved with his family to the West and worked on the railroad; his personality and influence on Fred’s life. The conversation then returns to Loretta who describes in more detail the circumstances and events of the BSU Walkout at OSU in 1969, the students who led the Walkout, and the campus reaction. Isaiah Adams, Loretta and Fred’s grandson and Zalika Gardner’s son, shares his perspective on his relationship with his grandfather, his admiration for his grandparents, and the values that he learned from Milton. The interview turns back to Loretta who describes some of the personal aspects of her marriage with Fred including his talent for letter writing, the evolution of their relationship with her parents, and his integrity. Loretta then shares her knowledge regarding the relationship between Fred Milton and football coach Dee Andros including their time while Fred attended OSU and their reconciliation during Fred’s candidacy for Portland County Commissioner. Both Loretta and Zalika describe Fred’s intellect and love of learning and the environment in addition to his athletic abilities, and Isaiah shares how those characteristics within his grandfather affected him. The family recollects on Milton’s many talents as an athlete and his passion for coaching. They conclude the interview by reflecting upon the positive impact that Milton had on the OSU campus and the significance of his story and legacy.Audio File via MediaSpace:https://media.oregonstate.edu/media/t/0_5uih38tw, Milton Family: Loretta Milton grew up in Roseburg, Oregon, and attended OSU in the late 1960s. She met her husband, Fred Milton, at OSU. They married in 1969 and moved to Utah where she worked as a teacher’s aide at the Edith Bowen Lab School while Fred completed his degree at Utah State University. For a short time, while Fred Milton played for the Montreal Alouettes, a Canadian football team, Loretta worked as a waitress. Loretta and Fred moved to Portland, Oregon, in the early 1970s, had several children, and were married until his death in 2011. Zalika Gardner, born 1973 in Portland, Oregon, is daughter to Fred and Loretta Milton. Isaiah Adams is Zalika Gardner’s son and Fred and Loretta Milton’s grandson.
Two US Army men, one cadet, wearing post WWI issue high collar jacket with brim cap and high laced leather boots. The second, an officer, probably OAC Staff personnel with later rolled collar (1926 issue) dress jacket and Sam Browne belt. This was a common theme in military photographs depicting the tallest and shortest men in a particular unit.
Wide angle photo of OAC Cadet band in formation on parade field, probably Inspection Day in mid 1920s. Band in marching formation with instruments. Double exposure trick photography changing perspective. Band in foreground is smaller than the band in the background.
Latino OSU: “Ideologías Lingüistas en los Estados Unidos” is divided into several segments all connected to the topic of linguistic ideologies or “ideologías lingüistas’ in Spanish. The students interviewed professors, students, and local professionals to discuss topics such as how linguistic ideologies are related to languages perceived as prestigious, how people speak differently depending on their social environments, how perspectives on language differs in an international context as well as how it is perceived in the United States, especially the idea of an “official language,” how language is taught in schools, how peoples’ identities are shaped by the language(s) they speak, and finally, perspectives on Spanish-language music., ~, Audio: https://media.oregonstate.edu/media/t/0_80rhd5tk
Gerald W. Williams is a native of Oregon and earned degrees from Southern Oregon University (B.A., Sociology; M.A. General Studies Social Science) and Washington State University (Ph.D., Sociology). Williams worked for the U.S. Forest Service from 1979 until his retirement in 2005. From 1979 to 1993, he was a sociologist with the Umpqua and Willamette National Forests in Oregon; in 1993-1998, he served as the regional sociologist for the Pacific Northwest Regional Office in Portland; and from 1998 until his retirement in 2005. He was the national historian for the U.S. Forest Service in Washington, D.C. Williams designed and implemented a regional and national history program for the Forest Service which culminated in his appointment as national historian. He has published more than 75 books, chapters, book reviews, and articles and conference papers exploring a variety of historical topics such as the Native American use of fire to manage environments, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and the U.S. Army's Spruce Production Division during World War I.
Includes footage of various birds, including their nesting sites. The film ends with footage of a pet quail and pet duck with the family dog. Includes title panels: "P Ranch, 40 miles of water and marshland, added to Malheur refuge"; "Trapping and banding ducks"; "Winter refuge for waterfowl"; and "A new kind of duck dog".
Filmed near Red Eagle (Montana?); includes footage of camp, porcupine, elk, moose and mountain goats. Includes title panels: "Fool hens"; "The trail needed patching"; "Leaving our horses we crept cautiously to the edge of a steep bank and peered over"; "The idea was to lie in wait at the stream crossing below the lick -- and it worked"; and "In the moose country."
The proud mother of these babies brought them 70 miles by canoe when she heard that she would be able to have their pictures taken. She was a bit unusual in that the Indians are still rather superstitious about having their pictures taken - but so are twins unusual among the Indians. You will note the garb is scarcely that of Indian taste, but this was one of the cases where the Major supplied the apparel in which they posed. The story you often hear that a tribal law require that twins be put to death, is without foundation and the Major is misquoted as its source.
This man typifies the more superstitious element among the Indians (which is, however, dying away gradually). When out in the mountains near Canyon City his wife fell ill and he decided that "Dr. Joe" some miles distant had "thrown medicine into" his wife thus causing her illness, he came into Pendleton with "blood in his eye." Fortunately, however, he met Major Morehouse, who talked him out of his purpose when we explained, "Me killee that doctor." He belongs to the Cayuse tribe.
The Indians of the Umatilla Reservation are more adept in the construction of bags than baskets, though they do make some baskets. When they do make them they use corn husks woven together with a twine made from roots they gather. Some baskets are, however, made of cedar roots covered with the inside of some kinds of bark. One of these we purchased, and wishing to use it for candy on one occasion, we scrubbed it thoroughly with a metal "mitt" and soap suds, but neither the form nor the colors were in the least affected.
Note the elaborate baby board. These baby boards are carried on the Indian women's backs. We might mention here that the women very much prefer being called Indian women to "Squaw") and if they are mixed blooded you will find yourself much more popular with them if you will remember to say "mixed blood" instead of "breed." We each our own particular species of pride.
This Indian came to a rather untimely end, for when he was thrown in jail for some offence his wife, Josephine, brought him "fire water" and after imbibing rater freely of it he fell on the flood, so injuring himself that death resulted.
Parson Motanic, now about 60 years old, was one of the wildest Indians on the Reservation before he came in contact with Rev. Cornelison of the Presbyterian Mission and was converted. Parson Motanic tells the story of the changes in his life in his tongue only, but his delivery of it is ideal and you are not surprised when the interpreter tells you that he says he was
Note the tule (too-le) tepee. Tule is very similar to cat-tails and is brought up on pack horses from near Echo. The stalks are cut in lengths, then into strips of tepee material resembling floor matting in color, though it is very much courser.
Baby's first cradle is simple, but as he grows older he is given a larger and more elaborate board. These first ones are almost always made of buckskin, though the later ones are frequently of cloth and very heavily beaded.
The girl in the middle is Esther, who in 1922 won the first place in Umatilla County's Oratorical contest - high school division. She is very popular among her schoolmates in the Pendleton High School.
The victory at Antietam was won on September 17, and the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation came forth on the 22nd. It was Lincoln’s own resolution and act; but practically it bound the nation, and permitted no step backward. In spite of its limitations, it was the actual abolition of slavery. Thus he wrote his name upon the books of history with the title dearest to his heart, -the liberator of the slave.
His time had not yet come when, in 1846, he was elected to Congress. In a clever speech in the House of Representatives, he denounced President Polk for having unjustly forced war upon Mexico, and he amused the Committee of the Whole by a witty attack upon General Cass. More important was the expression he gave his anti-slavery impulses by offering a bill looking to the emancipation of the slaves in the District of Columbia, and by his repeated votes for the famous Wilmot Proviso, intended to exclude slavery from the Territories acquired from Mexico. But when, at the expiration of his term, in March, 1849, he left his seat, he gloomily despaired of ever seeing the day when the cause nearest to his heart would be rightly grasped by the people, and when he would be able to render any service to his country in solving the great problem. Nor had his career as a member of Congress in any sense been such as to gratify his ambition. Indeed, if he ever had any belief in a great destiny for himself, it must have been weak at that period; for he actually sought to obtain from the new Whig President, General Taylor, the place of Commissioner of the General Land Office, willing to bury himself in one of the administrative bureaus of the government. Fortunately for the country, he failed; and no less fortunately, when, later, the territorial governorship of Oregon was offered to him, Mrs. Lincoln’s protest induced him to decline it. Returning to Springfield, he gave himself with renewed zest to his law practice, acquiesced in the Compromise of 1850 with reluctance and a mental reservation, supported in the presidential campaign of 1852 the Whig candidate in some spiritless speeches, and took but a languid interest in the politics of the day. But just then his time was drawing near.
His inaugural address foreshadowed his official course in characteristic manner. Although yielding nothing in point of principles, it was by no means a flaming anti-slavery manifesto, such as would have pleased the more ardent Republicans. It was rather the entreaty of a sorrowing father speaking to his wayward children. In the kindliest language he pointed out to the secessionists how ill-advised their attempt at disunion was, and why, for their own sakes, they should desist. Almost plaintively he told them that, while it was not their duty to destroy the union, it was his sworn duty to preserve it; that the least he could do, under the obligations of his oath was to possess and hold the property of the United States; that he hoped to do this peaceably; that he abhorred war for any purpose, and that they would have none unless they themselves were the agressors. It was a masterpiece of persuasiveness; and while Lincoln had accepted many valuable amendments suggested by Seward, it was essentially his own.
In the assault on the Missouri Compromise which broke down all legal barriers to the spread of slavery, Stephen Arnold Douglas was the ostensible leader and central figure; and Douglas was a senator of Illinois, Lincoln’s State, and in Illinois all eyes turned to Lincoln as Douglas’s natural antagonist. When, in 1858, Douglas’s senatorial term being about to expire, Lincoln was formerly designated by the Republican convention of Illinois as their candidate for the Senate, to take Douglas’s place, and the two contestants agreed to debate the questions at issue face to face in a series of public meetings, the eyes of the whole American people were turned eagerly to that one point; and the spectacle reminded one of those lays of ancient times telling of two armies, in battle array, standing still to see their two principal champions fight out the contested cause between the lines in single combat.
The Black Hawk war over, he turned to politics. The step from the captaincy of a volunteer company to a candidacy for a seat in the legislature seemed a natural one. But his popularity, although great in New Salem, had not spread far enough over the district, and he was defeated. Then the wretched hand-to-mouth struggle began again. He “set up in store business” with a dissolute partner, who drank whiskey while Lincoln was reading books. The result was a disastrous failure and a load of debt. Thereupon he became a deputy surveyor, and was appointed postmaster of New Salem, the business of the post office being so small that he could carry the incoming and outgoing mail in his hat. All this could not lift him from poverty, and his surveying instruments and horse and saddle were sold by the sheriff for debt.
But while all this misery was upon him, his ambition rose to higher aims. He walked many miles to borrow from a schoolmaster a grammar with which to improve his language. A lawyer lent him a copy of Blackstone, and he began to study law. People would look wonderingly at the grotesque figure lying in the grass, “with his feet up a tree,” or sitting on a fence, as, absorbed in a book, he learned to construct correct sentences and made himself a jurist. At once he gained a little practice, pettifogging before a justice of the peace for friends, without expecting a fee. Judicial functions, too, were thrust upon him, but only at horse races or wrestling matches, where his acknowledged honesty and fairness gave his verdicts undisputed authority.
He married Mary Todd of Kentucky. He continued to “ride the circuit,” read books while travelling in his buggy, told funny stories to his fellow lawyers in the tavern, chatted familiarly with his neighbors around the stove in the store and at the post-office, and his hours of melancholy brooding as of old, and became more and more widely known and trusted and beloved among the people of his State for his ability as a lawyer and politician, for the uprightness of his character and the ever-flowing spring of sympathetic kindness in his heart. His main ambition was confessedly that of political distinction; but hardly any one would at that time have seen in him the main destined to lead the nation through the greatest crisis of the century.
Long Charlie is the tallest Indian on the Reservation (6 1/2 feet). Here you seem him heating the stones in front of his sweat house where he is about to take a treatment to relieve the suffering resulting from a fight of the day before the "sitting." The red mark on his arm is a wound received from another Indian's knife. These sweat houses are found all along the rivers and creeks. They are made by forcing both ends of long switches into the ground, thus forming a sort of miniature blind tunnel. When the patient is ready for his sweat bath he covers these over with his blankets (sometimes with sods) and builds a fire in front, where he warms his stones. When these are well heated he rolls them into the sweat house with sticks, and taking a vessel of water, he goes in, closing the flap behind him. He pours the water on the hot rocks and remains inside until he is sweating freely. He, then, rushes out and into the cold river, on the bank of which his house is built, coming immediately out of the water and rushing back in until he is thoroughly cooled. This mode of treatment is a sort of panacea for the Indians (especially the older ones and resulted in great mortality in smallpox and measles epidemics, as well as in the more recent "flu" epidemic.
The Indians celebrate for about ten days. During the days they have races and wrestling matches, as well as a very great deal of feasting with great gambling games at night. Their chief form of gambling is that of placing all goods to be gambled for between two long poles. The head of one line holds two bones, one of which is marked. He changes these back and forth from one hand to the other and finally holds out his hands for the Indian opposite him to guess in which is the marked bone. Guessing right, his side receives a bone, but if he guesses wrongly the bone is kept on the gambler's side. In either case the hones to be manipulated pass down the one line, then up on the other side, giving each an opportunity both to hold and guess. At the termination of the game the side having the most bones takes all the goods in the center - dividing them as they see fit. Major Morehouse notes that, in this game, the Indians are very particular to see that it is played fairly all the way around.
Chickamapoo fought with Chief Joseph's men through the campaign of 1877. At the battle of the Bighorn, Montana, General Gibbon (the little town of Gibbon, Oregon, was named in his honor) surprised Joseph and routed the Indians, then left the camp, thinking he vanquished them. Joseph reformed his band and recaptured the camp, leaving General Gibbon wounded and many of his soldiers killed. In the skirmish, Chickamappo was captured and place on a horse behind a U.S. soldier. Her hands were tied, but someway she managed to work them loose and slipping the knife from the soldier's belt, she stabbed him in the back, rolled him off his horse, and rejoined Chief Jospeh.
As the state of society in which Abraham Lincoln grew up passes away, the world will read with increasing wonder of the man who, not only of the humblest origin, but remaining the simplest and most unpretending of citizens, was raised to a position of power unprecedented in our history; who was the gentlest and most peace-loving of mortals, unable to see any creature suffer without a pang in his own breast, and suddenly found himself called to conduct the greatest and bloodiest of our wars; who wielded the power of government when stern resolution and relentless force were the order of the day, and then won and ruled the popular mind and heart by the tender sympathies of his nature; who was a cautious conservative by temperament and mental habit, and led the most sudden and sweeping social revolution of our time; who, preserving his homely speech and rustic manner even in the most conspicuous position of that period, drew upon himself the scoffs of polite society, and then thrilled the soul of mankind with utterances of wonderful beauty and grandeur; who, in his heart the best friend of the defeated South, was murdered because a crazy fanatic took him for its most cruel enemy; who, while in power, was beyond measure lampooned and maligned by sectional passion and an excited party spirit, and around whose bier friend and foe gathered to praise him – which they have since never ceased to do – as one of the greatest of Americans and the best of men.
The peace promised, and apparently inaugurated, by the Compromise of 1850 was rudely broken by the introduction of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise, opening the Territories of the United States, the heritage of coming generations, to the invasion of slavery, suddenly revealed the whole significance of the slavery question to the people of the free States, and thrust itself into the politics of the country as the paramount issue. The Republican party sprang into being to meet the overruling call of the hour. The Abraham Lincoln’s time was come. He rapidly advanced to a position of conspicuous championship in the struggle. This, however, was not owing to his virtues and abilities alone. Indeed, the slavery question stirred his soul in its profoundest depths.
The presidential election of 1860 approached, and Lincoln was elected President by a majority of fifty-seven votes in the electoral colleges. On the 11th of February, 1861, Lincoln left Springfield for Washington; having with characteristic simplicity, asked his law partner not to change the sign of the firm “Lincoln and Herndon” during the four years’ unavoidable absence of the senior partner, and having taken an affectionate and touching leave of his neighbors.
After his return he worked and lived in the old way until the spring of 1830, when his father “moved again”, this time to Illinois; and on the journey of fifteen days “Abe” had to drive the ox wagon which carried the household goods. Another log cabin was built, and then, fencing a field, Abraham Lincoln split those historic rails which were destined to play so picturesque a part in the presidential campaign twenty-eight years later.
It is doubtful whether he felt himself much superior to his surroundings, although he confessed to a yearning for some knowledge of the world outside of the circle in which he lived. This wish was gratified. At the age of nineteen he went down the Mississippi to New Orleans as a flatboat hand, temporarily joining a trade many members of which at that time still took pride in being called “half horse and half alligator”.
When offences are committed on the reservation the Indian Police Court holds a session with the Indian agent and decides (if possible) what the punishment shall be. Captain Sumkin was for many years Chief of Police (the highest office an Indian can hold in their government) and was very proud of his star. When members of his own or other tribes were brought in on liquor charges, he gave them jail sentences without hesitating, but when his chief was brought in he refused to sentence him, nor could any pressure be brought to bear on him force him to pass the sentence. Finally, on being told he would have to give up his star, he gave it over, saying that the law of the tribe came above all else and he couldn't sentence his chief.
The well known love of beads among the Indians seems to be becoming continually more deeply ingrained as they become more civilized. Their work commands high prices in the local stores. We priced a pair of ladies' buckskin gloves which were prettily, though not lavishly beaded, and found them $12.00. On the bags the background is usually worked solid with a single color of beads and the design then filled in with contrasting or harmonizing colors.
These tobacco pouches are not now as common as they were among the older Indians, who were rather proud of their gaily beaded pouches. The Indians dry sumach leaves and mix the, with tobacco for smoking.
When the statue of Sacajawea was to be modelled for the park in Portland the sculptress wrote to Major Morehouse for an Indian study and it was the picture of Rosa Paul he sent her and from this she modeled Sacajawea.