A man who disappeared and was presumed dead by his family was found four years later living a different life with a different name. The author interviewed and received correspondence from several sources related to the incident. While living under an alias, the man was recognized, but did not remember anything of his previous life or family. Upon awakening to his previous identity following a period of stress, headaches, and a nap, the man recognized his family members, but remembered nothing of his alias. A physician provides a theory that the alternate personality may be related to a blood clot.
This case report concerns a 31 year old man who suffered from a fear of enclosed places. During treatment for this claustrophobia the man recovered a memory from age 4 involving being trapped in a dark enclosed space. Subsequent information provided by the man's parents provided some degree of confirmation of his recovered memory. The man's claustrophobia subsided after recovering the childhood memory. An interesting aspect of the case is that prior attempts to recover a memory of a sexual nature (due to therapist suggestion) were not successful, suggesting the man was not unduly suggestible.
The multiple personality case of Blanche Witt is discussed. One of her personalities suffered from blindness in one eye, the other personality had perfect vision. Her condition was treated with hypnotism. The case of Marceline R. is also discussed. She suffered from an eating disorder, but when hypnotized she was able to eat properly, but returned to her former state when not hypnotized. Neither woman was cured, but was able to be symptom free while hypnotized.
The Doris Fischer case concerns a woman with multiple personalities dating back to the age of three. Some of the personalities were created from traumatic events, others the origins of are unknown. This case is remarkable because it involves a personality that is a subliminal co-conscious personality that can co-exist at the same time as another personality and can take over when necessary. Doris was under observation daily and hourly for almost four years. In all Doris is said to have five separate personalities. Each personality and the actions of each is discussed in detail by Dr. Prince.
A case of epilepsy is linked to features of dissociation, including altered personality and memory impairment. The attending physician describes an adult male with a 6-year history of epileptic convulsions beginning at the age of 44. The patient experiences convulsions for several days a month, during which time his temperament changes from "pleasant" to "abusive and violent." After the episode, the man is unable to recall what he said or did during the altered state.
This article describes a case in 1887 of "double consciousness" experienced by Ansel Bourne, a 61-year-old preacher from Rhode Island. The author argues that Ansel suffered from a post-epileptic partial loss of memory, resulting in the formation of a secondary identity named A.J. Brown. Several first hand accounts of the man's condition are included, providing rich descriptions of his behavior and cognitive dysfunctions. References are made to childhood depression and possible abuse. The author cites several cases that reported epileptic seizures as the cause of double consciousness. He suggests hypnosis and "suggestive therapeutics" may cure double consciousness.
Dr. Albert Wilson documents his experiences as the primary physician of an adolescent girl who, over the course of four years, displayed more than a dozen distinct identities. Each persona was unique in its memories, mental capabilities, physical disturbances, aesthetic abilities and moral development. The first secondary personality appeared while the girl suffered from an "attack of meningitis." The physician hypothesizes that vaso-motor changes in the brain may play a central role in the etiology of this case of double consciousness. Finally, while considering the violent and socially deviant nature of some of the patient's personalities, Wilson examines moral and legal responsibility as it relates to the acts committed by individuals with dissociated identities.
Mason argues the importance of recognizing and studying alternating personalities. He describes the awareness of the secondary personalities for each other and the primary personality, using the case of Madame B. to illustrate. The author identifies conditions in which the secondary personality has been observed: 1) spontaneously, 2) under hypnosis, 3) while asleep, and 4) as a result of pathologic conditions of the organism. The origin of personality as either a "product of a power inherent in nature" or "as an expression of organism" is discussed. The author concludes with consideration of the legal accountability of persons with alternating personalities.
Dr. Ward discusses the case of 13 year old Mary Parker. Mary suffered from the measles at age 7, and epileptic attacks started at age 12. Various remedies, such as bleeding out and leeches are tried on Mary, none of which work. Mary's ailments increase to include headache, pain and pressure on her left side. She eventually begins to alternate between delirium and a sound state of mind. Mary's symptoms disappear with the onset of menses. It was concluded that Mary's symptoms were connected to epilepsy, but were hysterical in origin.